“So there was destruction of evidence as well

“So there was destruction of evidence as well

whose research led to internment reparations

As a teenager in World War II, Aiko Herzig Yoshinaga was removed from her high school and imprisoned in an internment camp for Japanese Americans. Her research later led to reparations for the camps’ prisoners and an apology from the president.

canada goose coats on sale Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga was an honors student, with plans to study music and Canada Goose Outlet art in college, but President Franklin D. Roosevelt had just buy canada goose jacket signed Executive Order 9066. Nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans were being forced into internment camps. canada goose coats on sale

“You all don’t deserve to get your high school diplomas because your people bombed Pearl Harbor,” she recalled her principal saying.

Canada Goose sale By graduation day, Mrs. Herzig canada goose store Yoshinaga the American born daughter of Japanese immigrants was sleeping on a hay filled sack at the Manzanar War Relocation Center, a dust blown “prison camp,” as she later called it, in the shadow of the Sierra Nevada range. Canada Goose sale

Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga would spend decades trying to forget the war years, until the anti Vietnam War movement gave her a new political canada goose coats on sale sensibility and drew her canada goose black friday sale back into the past. Settling canada goose uk black friday in the Washington area in 1978, she began visiting the National Archives, searching for information on internment.

She was soon spending six days a week in the archives, scouring thousands of poorly indexed documents. With her husband, she copied so many documents that they filled a bathtub in their home, enough copies that their master bedroom was lined with file cabinets and converted into an office.

buy canada goose jacket Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga was honored at Los Angeles City Hall in 2011. Behind her are son in law Warren Furutani; the City Council president, Eric Garcetti; and Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa. (Mario Gershom Reyes) buy canada goose jacket

canada goose And then, in the early 1980s, Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga picked up a red bound volume sitting on the corner of an archivist’s desk. As she later told the Los Angeles Times, the book contained the original draft of a 1943 government report on internment, apparently the last such copy in existence. “I began thumbing through the report, and then, buy canada goose jacket cheap when I came upon an important section, I nearly hit the ceiling.” canada goose

Canada Goose online Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga, who was 93 when she died July18 at a hospital in Torrance, Calif., had uncovered evidence suggesting America’s World War II internment policy had racist motives and was not a result of “military necessity,” as Pentagon officials claimed. Canada Goose online

Canada Goose Outlet Her findings helped persuade Congress to pass the 1988 Civil Liberties Act, which granted $20,000 in reparations to each survivor of the Canada Goose Parka camps and a formal apology from President Ronald Reagan. Canada Goose Outlet

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Canada Goose Parka They also proved instrumental in a 1983 legal effort canada goose to overturn the criminal conviction of Fred Korematsu a welder who had defied orders to report to an internment center, and who unsuccessfully challenged Roosevelt’s executive order before the Supreme Court. Canada Goose Parka

Similar convictions for two other Japanese Americans, Gordon Hirabayashi and Minoru Yasui, were subsequently cleared with the help of Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga’s “pivotal” research, said Dale Minami, a San Francisco based lawyer who led the legal team in all three cases.

canada goose deals “What she did was expose misconduct Canada Goose Coats On Sale in the government in this dark light the alteration of an originally racist justification to a more benign one, to make it more palatable to the Supreme Court,” Minami said in a phone interview. canada goose deals

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canada goose coats By 1980, when a congressional commission was established to study the motivations and effects of Executive Order cheap Canada Goose 9066, Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga had gathered about 8,000 documents. The Commission on uk canada goose Wartime Relocation cheap canada goose uk and Internment of Civilians hired her as a researcher. canada goose coats

Three years later, in a uk canada goose outlet 467 page report written by lawyer Angus C. Macbeth, the commission concluded that internment was prompted by “race prejudice, war hysteria and a failure of political leadership.”

While officials in the Roosevelt administration insisted canada goose factory sale internment was essential to the war effort, the commission reported that “not a single documented act of espionage, Canada Goose Jackets sabotage or fifth column activity was committed by an American citizen of Japanese ancestry or by a resident Japanese alien on the West Coast.”

canada goose black friday sale The report singled out Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga for praise, declaring that she “in large part found and organized canada goose uk outlet and remembered the vast array of primary documents from which canada goose clearance the report was written.” canada goose black friday sale

No document proved more significant than the one in the little red book. Written by Lt. Gen. John L. DeWitt, it said that internments were necessary not because there was “insufficient time” to distinguish loyal and disloyal Japanese Americans, Canada Goose online but because “an exact separation of the ‘sheep from the goats’ was unfeasible.” The nature of the Japanese “race,” in other words, made internment essential.

canadian goose jacket Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga and her research partner, lawyer Peter H. Irons, also uncovered a certificate “verifying that all copies of that report were burned,” Minami said. “So there was destruction of evidence as well. Inexplicably, one copy of the report remained.” The published version, featuring altered language, was used as evidence to uphold the internment policy in court. solicitor general declared that the canada goose uk shop government had suppressed evidence when the Korematsu case was heard before the Supreme Court in 1944. Then, a month ago, Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. citizens to concentration camps, solely and explicitly on the basis of race, is objectively unlawful.” canadian goose jacket

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Canada Goose Jackets The decision was perhaps the final step in a process of national atonement spurred by Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga’s research, the success of which shocked even her. Canada Goose Jackets

buy canada goose jacket cheap “I’m just a little old housewife. I’m not a professional archivist,” she told the Los Angeles Times in 1988. “But I guess I showed that one person can make a difference.” buy canada goose jacket cheap

canada goose store The fifth of six children, Aiko Louise Yoshinaga was born in Sacramento on Aug. 5, 1924, and grew up in Los Angeles. Her parents, immigrants from the Japanese island of Kyushu, managed a hotel and ran a produce stand. canada http://www.canadagoosecanadaoutlet.com goose store

When internment began, Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga’s parents and siblings were sent to the stables at Santa Anita racetrack in Arcadia, Calif., and then to camps in Arkansas. To avoid being separated from her boyfriend, Jacob Miyazaki, Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga eloped. The couple were bused 250 miles to Manzanar, near Independence, Calif., where Mrs. Herzig Yoshinaga gave birth to a daughter, spent hours washing sand and dust from her newborn’s diapers and saw her father only on his deathbed, while he was ailing at a separate camp in Arkansas.